kepada semua, andai saya ada melakukan kesilapan dan kesalahan, maafkanlah saya..semoga Allah merahmati kalian, dakwah dan tarbiah kalian..juga saya..amin ya rabb..semoga Allah memberikan kejayaan kepada saya, kalian dan seluruh umat Islam..
Dr. Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi
Abu al-Qasim Khalaf ibn al-Abbas Al-Zahrawi (936 - 1013), (Arabic: أبو القاسم بن خلف بن العباس الزهراوي) also known in the West as Abulcasis, was an Andalusian-Arab physician, surgeon, and scientist. He is considered the father of modern surgery, and as Islam's greatest medieval surgeon, whose comprehensive medical texts, Islamic medicine teachings, shaped both Islamic and European surgical procedures up until the Renaissance. His greatest contribution to history is the Kitab al-Tasrif, a thirty-volume encyclopedia of medical practices.
BiographyAbu al-Qasim was born in the city of El Zahra, six miles northwest of Córdoba, Spain. He was descended from the Ansar Arab tribe who settled earlier in Spain. Few details remain regarding his life, aside from his published work, due to the destruction of El-Zahra during later Spanish-Moorish conflicts. His name first appears in the writings of Abu Muhammad bin Hazm (993 - 1064), who listed him among the greatest physicians of Moorish Spain. But we have the first detailed biography of El-Zahrawi from al-Humaydi's Jadhwat al-Muqtabis (On Andalusian Savants), completed six decades after El-Zahrawi's death.
In El-Zahra, he lived most of his life. It is also where he studied, taught and practised medicine and surgery until shortly before his death in about 1013, two years after the sacking of El-Zahra.
Abu al-Qasim was a court physician to the Andalusian caliph Al-Hakam II. He devoted his entire life and genius to the advancement of medicine as a whole and surgery in particular. His best work was the Kitab al-Tasrif. It is a medical encyclopaedia spanning 30 volumes which included sections on surgery, medicine, orthopaedics, ophthalmology, pharmacology, nutrition etc.
In the 14th century, French surgeon Guy de Chauliac quoted al-Tasrif over 200 times. Pietro Argallata (d. 1453) described Abu al-Qasim as "without doubt the chief of all surgeons". In an earlier work, he is credited to be the first to describe ectopic pregnancy in 963, in those days a fatal affliction. Abu Al-Qasim's influence continued for at least five centuries, extending into the Renaissance, evidenced by al-Tasrif's frequent reference by French surgeon Jaques Delechamps (1513-1588).
(IMG:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/3/35/Al-zahrawi_surgical_tools.gif/180px-Al-zahrawi_surgical_tools.gif) [/size]Page from a 1531 Latin translation by Peter Argellata of El Zahrawi's treatise on surgical and medical instruments.
Main article: Al-TasrifAbu al-Qasim's thirty-chapter medical treatise, Kitab al-Tasrif, published in 1000, covered a broad range of medical topics, including dentistry and childbirth, which contained data that had accumulated during a career that spanned almost 50 years of training, teaching and practice. In it he also wrote of the importance of a positive doctor-patient relationship and wrote affectionately of his students, whom he referred to as "my children". He also emphasised the importance of treating patients irrespective of their social status. He encouraged the close observation of individual cases in order to make the most accurate diagnosis and the best possible treatment.
Al-Tasrif was later translated into Latin by Gerard of Cremona in the 12th century, and illustrated. For perhaps five centuries during the European Middle Ages, it was the primary source for European medical knowledge, and served as a reference for doctors and surgeons.
Not always properly credited, Abu Al-Qasim's al-Tasrif described both what would later became known as "Kocher's method" for treating a dislocated shoulder and "Walcher position" in obstetrics. Al-Tasrif described how to ligature blood vessels before Ambroise Paré, and was the first recorded book to document several dental devices and explain the hereditary nature of haemophilia.
Advances in surgery
Al-Qasim was a surgeon and specialized in curing disease by cauterization. He also invented several devices used during surgery, for the purpose of:
* inspection of the interior of the urethra
* applying and removing foreign bodies from the throat
* inspection of the ear
Al-Qasim also described the use of forceps in vaginal deliveries.
Surgical instruments :
In his Al-Tasrif (The Method of Medicine), he introduced his famous collection of over 200 surgical instruments. Many of these instruments were never used before by any previous surgeons. Hamidan, for example, listed at least twenty six innovative surgical instruments that Abulcasis introduced.
Abu al-Qasim's use of catgut for internal stitching is still practised in modern surgery. The catgut appears to be the only natural substance capable of dissolving and is acceptable by the body.
In the Al-Tasrif (1000), Abu al-Qasim invented the forceps for extracting a dead fetus, as illustrated in the the Al-Tasrif.
In the Al-Tasrif (1000), Abu al-Qasim introduced the use of ligature for the arteries in lieu of cauterization.
Surgical needle :
The surgical needle was invented and described by Abu al-Qasim in his Al-Tasrif (1000).
Other instruments :
Other surgical instruments invented by Abu al-Qasim and first described in his Al-Tasrif (1000) include the scalpel, curette, retractor, surgical spoon, sound, surgical hook, surgical rod, and specula.
Dr. Nik Abduh